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Class Notes: Human Osteology

Sunday: September 25, 2011

Week 3: Osteometric Landmarks & Teeth


In class, we covered the view of the interior cranium, the maxilla, and the mandible. We also covered some common craniometric landmarks used to identify ancestry. Since I have these memorized well: gnathion, incision, prosthion, nasospinale, nasion, glabella, bregma, vertex, obelion, lambda, opisthocranion, inion, opisthion, basion, gonion, ectomolare, ectoconchion, dacryon, zygion, porion, euryon, and pterion.

There are 20 deciduous teeth and 32 adult teeth in most instances. I only had 31 teeth because one of my third molars never developed. Cool, huh? Teeth are made of enamel (which is almost entirely protein and is acellular, which means they will never heal), dentin (which is about 75% mineral but is cellular although not well enough to patch cavities), and cement (about 65% mineral, like bone, and is what Sharpey’s Fibers hang on to inside the gomphosis joint).

The human dental formula is 2:1:2:3. This means that for each quadrant of your mouth, you have two incisors, then a canine, then two premolars, followed by three molars. We were briefly taught how to determine each category, and upper versus lower dentition (except for canines). More specific detail of this will be taught in Dental Anthropology next semester.

  • Upper incisors: Crown will be flat, enamel flares out from root, the root is more round, and wear will be linear.
  • Lower incisors: Crown will be flat, enamel continues evenly from root, the root is oblong, and wear will be linear.
  • Canines: Crown will be pointed, and wear will have a central bulge.


  • Upper premolars: Crown will be a rounded rectangle, and evenly cut in half.
  • Lower premolars: Crown will mostly circular and will have two dimples.
  • Upper molars: Crown will be shaped like parallelograms, and generally only have four cusps and three roots.
  • Lower molars: Crown will be more squared, have a Y5 or +4 pattern, and only have two roots.

As a grad student, I also have to be able to determine first, second, and third molars. Third molars are fun because typically the cusps are all messed up and the roots are tiny. First are generally the perfect examples of a molar, and seconds are intermediate between the two.


We were given details on our dental topography project. The machine we will be using is part of my Research Associate position. Not only will I scan the teeth for texture with the white light confocal microscope, but I will also profile them in the topography machine (TopoM). This process takes literally about 2 hours to do a single tooth but it builds a three dimensional view of the tooth.

For lab, we went over more skull fragments and began sorting teeth.

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